The Origin of Species by Charles Darwin

The Origin of Species

Darwin's theory of natural selection issued a profound challenge to orthodox thought and belief: no being or species has been specifically created; all are locked into a pitiless struggle for existence, with extinction looming for those not fitted for the task. Yet The Origin of Species (1859) is also a humane and inspirational vision of ecological interrelatedness, reveal...

Title:The Origin of Species
Author:
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ISBN:0785819118
Edition Language:English
Number of Pages:703 pages

The Origin of Species Reviews

  • Pam

    such a freakin' genius! and the sadest part is, that his "science" literally killed him. if you've read a lot in Darwin (as I have) you come to understand that as a religious man, his studies seriously conflicted with his beliefs. I hate it when I hear someone say that Darwin says, "we come from monkeys." because that is not the case.

    his theory is on EVOLUTION, not monkeys. all he wanted people to understand was adaptation and survival of the fittest is really a simple concept, and daily life- p

    such a freakin' genius! and the sadest part is, that his "science" literally killed him. if you've read a lot in Darwin (as I have) you come to understand that as a religious man, his studies seriously conflicted with his beliefs. I hate it when I hear someone say that Darwin says, "we come from monkeys." because that is not the case.

    his theory is on EVOLUTION, not monkeys. all he wanted people to understand was adaptation and survival of the fittest is really a simple concept, and daily life- proves just that.

    his theories don't have to impede on your beliefs in God. he was a Christian man, himself, but could still see the science before his very eyes. give it a shot if you are intrigued by species changing, growing, dying, extinction, over time...

  • Stephen M

    Edits for NR because I love him that much.

    :

    "This preservation of favourable variations and the rejection of injurious variations, I call Natural Selection. Variations neither useful not injurious would not be affected by natural selection, and would be left a fluctuating element, as perhaps we see in the species called polymorphic.

    "We shall best understand the probable course of natural selection by taking the case of a country undergoing some physical change, for instance, of climate. The

    Edits for NR because I love him that much.

    :

    "This preservation of favourable variations and the rejection of injurious variations, I call Natural Selection. Variations neither useful not injurious would not be affected by natural selection, and would be left a fluctuating element, as perhaps we see in the species called polymorphic.

    "We shall best understand the probable course of natural selection by taking the case of a country undergoing some physical change, for instance, of climate. The proportional numbers of its inhabitants would almost immediately undergo a change, and some species might become extinct. We may conclude, from what we have seen of the intimate and complex manner in which the inhabitants of each country are bound together, that any change in the numerical proportions of some of the inhabitants, independently of the change of climate itself, would most seriously affect many of the others. If the country were open on its borders, new forms would certainly immigrate, and this also would seriously disturb the relations of some of the former inhabitants. Let it be remembered how powerful the influence of a single introduced tree or mammal has been shown to be. But in the case of an island, or of a country partly surrounded by barriers, into which new and better adapted forms could not freely enter, we should then have places in the economy of nature which would assuredly be better filled up, if some of the original inhabitants were in some manner modified; for, had the area been open immigration, these same places would have been seized on by intruders. In such case, ever slight modification, which in the course of ages chanced to arise, and which in any way favoured the individuals of any of the species, by better adapting them to their altered conditions, would tend to be preserved and natural selection would thus have free scope for the work of improvement.

    "We have reason to believe, as stated in the first chapter, that a change in the conditions of life, by specially acting on the reproductive systems, cause or increases variability; and in the foregoing case the conditions of life are supposed to have undergone a changes, and this would manifestly be favourable to natural selection, by giving a better chance of profitable variations occurring; and unless profitable variations do occur, natural selection can do nothing." (I DIDN'T WRITE THIS. DARWIN DID IN THIS BOOK.)

    .

  • Manny

    Dear Carol,

    Thank you for your mail, and of course I remember meeting you on the flight last month! It was a very interesting discussion and I'm still thinking about it. The semester has now started here at Creationist U and I am working hard, but I found time to read the book you recommended. And I'm glad I did, because it was really a lot better than I thought it would be.

    I guess I was expecting Darwin to be like Richard Dawkins, but he was respectful of religious ideas. And it was great that h

    Dear Carol,

    Thank you for your mail, and of course I remember meeting you on the flight last month! It was a very interesting discussion and I'm still thinking about it. The semester has now started here at Creationist U and I am working hard, but I found time to read the book you recommended. And I'm glad I did, because it was really a lot better than I thought it would be.

    I guess I was expecting Darwin to be like Richard Dawkins, but he was respectful of religious ideas. And it was great that he liked Paley's

    so much... he says he almost knew it by heart! We read Paley last year in History of Creation Science, and I also thought it was a terrific book. So I could see Darwin was an open-minded person who was prepared to look at both sides of the question. Richard Dawkins could learn a lot from that!

    The way he sets up his argument is smart. He starts off talking about how stockbreeders can improve their breed - well, I'm a country boy, and I could see he knew his stuff. This is someone who's spent time down at the farm and understands how country people feel about livestock. And I liked that he'd done all that work raising pigeons. Not the kind of scientist who just hangs out at the lab all day.

    After that, he introduces his Big Idea about the survival of the fittest and he almost made evolution sound sensible. He's a good writer. And then he was honest when he explained all the problems with the theory. He really got me - I was wondering if he was going to mention any of that stuff, and a page later he came out and said just what I was thinking! Nice work, Mr. Darwin. But I did wonder what he was doing, cutting out the ground from under his own feet. He said he could explain things like the eye and how bees could evolve to make honeycombs, but even if he was real good at making his case, I wasn't buying any.

    So by the halfway mark, I figured he was done, but like ol' Dubya used to say, I misunderestimated him - he'd saved all his best stuff for last. He had some good shots! I got to admit, he made me think. Why does God put the species that look alike in the same place? Like he says, it is weird how you have a mountain range, and there's one kind of animals and plants on one side, and a different kind on the other side. God's ways are inscrutable to us, but why does He care about those mountains? And the islands, they were even worse. He says if you look at the species on a lot of islands, you don't have any mammals there, except you do have bats. Why? I could see where he was going with this one - the bats could blow in off the mainland and evolve, but other mammals couldn't do that. I admit it, I don't have an answer, except maybe God's testing our faith again. But I can see not everyone will like that. I'm still wondering about those bats! Okay Mr. Darwin, I said it already but I'll say it again, you were a smart guy.

    So how's life at MIT? And I hope you read the book I recommended to you.

    will show you that faith and science have more in common than you might think!

    Take care,

    Bob

  • Thabit

    قد يكون هذا الكتاب هو أعظم كتاب انتجته البشرية. داروين غير كل شيء في مسار البشرية من نظرة البشر لأنفسهم حتى نظرة البشر تجاه الكون والطبيعة

    من اكبر المغالطات التي تواجهها اليوم عملية التطور اعتبارها بأنها نظرية. مصطلح نظرية دارون أو نظرية التطور كانت صالحة قبل قرن ولكن اليوم عملية التطور هي حقيقة علمية مدعومة بأدلة لا تعد ولا تحصى ولكن البشر يخافون من أن يتم اعتبارهم كسائر المخلوقات الأرضية المتصلة ببعض إذ إننا نحب الشعور بالامتياز والتفوق على الغير ونوهم أنفسنا بأننا موجودين على سطح الأرض لغاية أ

    قد يكون هذا الكتاب هو أعظم كتاب انتجته البشرية. داروين غير كل شيء في مسار البشرية من نظرة البشر لأنفسهم حتى نظرة البشر تجاه الكون والطبيعة

    من اكبر المغالطات التي تواجهها اليوم عملية التطور اعتبارها بأنها نظرية. مصطلح نظرية دارون أو نظرية التطور كانت صالحة قبل قرن ولكن اليوم عملية التطور هي حقيقة علمية مدعومة بأدلة لا تعد ولا تحصى ولكن البشر يخافون من أن يتم اعتبارهم كسائر المخلوقات الأرضية المتصلة ببعض إذ إننا نحب الشعور بالامتياز والتفوق على الغير ونوهم أنفسنا بأننا موجودين على سطح الأرض لغاية أعلى وأسمى كنوع من استوهام الطمأنينة

    المغالطة الكبرى الثانية الإعتقاد بأن كتاب أصل الأنواع يتفصل في كيفية تطور الإنسان "الهابليس إلى الرودلفينسيس إلى الإيريكتس إلى الهيديلبيرجينسيس إلى النيانديرثالينسيس إلى الإنسان الحالي" بل الكتاب يظهر نماذج متنوعة من الكائنات الحية ومراحل تطورها مع تضاريس الطبيعة ولا يتدخل في موضوع التطور البشري

    المغالطة الثالثة الظن بأن عملية التطور البشرية تدل على أن أصل الإنسان قرد! الإنسان في التصنيف العلمي الحديث يعتبر "من ناحية التعداد والانتشار" اكبر نوع من فصائل القردة في العالم إذ إن الإنسان بنفسه هو احد فصائل القردة مع حيوان الغاب والغوريلا و الشيمبانزي والأدلة كما ذكرت مسبقاً لا تعد ولا تحصى. الرد الكافي يكمن في الحمض النووي للشيمبانزي إذ إنه يتشابه في 98% مع الحمض النووي البشري والباقي "2%" من الحمض النووي تختلف في الخلايا الدماغية. نحن البشر نتشارك مع كل الكائنات الحية "النباتات، الأسماك، الطيور، الزواحف الخ" نسب محددة من الحمض النووي وهذا ليس إلا إثبات إلى أننا البشر أبناء الطبيعة

    أما المغالطة الأخيرة والأكبر هو الإعتقاد بأن في عملية التطور يتطور الفصيل مثلاً البشري الإيركيتيس بين ليلة وضحاها إلى الفصيل البشري الهيديلبيرجينسيس ولكن الذي لا يعرفه الغالب هو أن هذه العملية تأخذ فترة طويلة جداً تصل إلى مئات الآلاف من السنين أو أكثر ليتم إنتاج فصيل آخر متطور بحكم تضاريس الطبيعة. على سبيل المثال عندما استعمر الأوروبيون البرازيل اخذوا معهم أحد أنواع الطيور إلى احدى الجزر بالقرب من الامازون في القرن السادس عشر وعندما زار داروين بعد أربع قرون البرازيل في رحلة إستكشافية استكشف بأن هذا الفصيل من الطير قد تطور إلى أربع فصائل وكل فصيلة تعيش في بيئة محددة ومختلفة عن غيرها رغم أنهم قبل قرون كانوا من فصيل واحد ولكن التضاريس الطبيعية ساهمت في تغيير مظاهر الطيور على حسب الأجواء التي استقرت فيها بعد أن هاجرت فالفصيل الذي يعيش في بيئة قاسية يتحمل التعب أكثر من غيره والفصيل الذي يعيش في بيئة بها فاكهة صلبة يمتلك منقار اكبر وأقوى من غيره وهكذا

    نحن نعيش في القرن الواحد والعشرين وما زال الغالبية العظمى من العرب يؤمنون بأنهم من طين وصلصال وينكرون التطور بحجة التدخل الغربي لزعزعة الدين ولكن إنكار التطور في هذا القرن هو أشبه بمن يقول بأن الأرض مسطحة أو أن الشمس تدور حول الأرض! التاريخ يعلمنا بأن العلم لا يُقهر ودائماً ما يفرض نفسه على العادات والتقاليد وأساطير الأولين مهما اختلفت الأنفس

  • Ahmad Sharabiani

    On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life = On Natural Selection, Charles Darwin

    عنوانها: بنیاد انواع: به وسیله انتخاب طبیعی یا کشمکش و نبرد برای زیستن؛ بنیاد انواع: به وسیله انتخاب طبیعی یا تنازغ بقا در عالم طبیعت؛ انتخاب طبیعی؛ تکامل؛ بنیاد انواع؛ منشا انواع؛ خاستگاه گونه ها؛ اصل انواع؛ انتشاراتیها: ابن سینا؛ شبگیر؛ نگارستان، روزگار نو؛ نخستین خوانش: سیزدهم سپتامبر سال 1972 میلادی

    عنوان: بنیاد انواع : به وسیله انتخاب طب

    On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life = On Natural Selection‭, Charles Darwin

    عنوانها: بنیاد انواع: به وسیله انتخاب طبیعی یا کشمکش و نبرد برای زیستن؛ بنیاد انواع: به وسیله انتخاب طبیعی یا تنازغ بقا در عالم طبیعت؛ انتخاب طبیعی؛ تکامل؛ بنیاد انواع؛ منشا انواع؛ خاستگاه گونه ها؛ اصل انواع؛ انتشاراتیها: ابن سینا؛ شبگیر؛ نگارستان، روزگار نو؛ نخستین خوانش: سیزدهم سپتامبر سال 1972 میلادی

    عنوان: بنیاد انواع : به وسیله انتخاب طبیعی یا کشمکش و نبرد برای زیستن؛ نویسنده: چارلز داروین؛ مترجم: عباس شوقی؛ تهران؛ ابن سینا، 1351، در 536 ص؛ عنوان دیگر: تکامل؛ بنیاد انواع؛ موضوع: زیست شناسی: تکامل و انتخاب طبیعی؛ قرن 19 م

    عنوان: منشا انواع ؛ نویسنده: چارلز داروین، مترجم: نورالدین فرهیخته؛ تهران؛ شبگیر، 1359، در 618 ص؛ چاپ دیگر: ارومیه، انتشارات انزلی، 1363؛ چاپ دیگر: تهران، نگارستان کتاب، 1380، شابک: 9644072677؛ در 618 ص؛ چاپ دوم 1389؛ شابک: 9786005541877؛

    عنوان: انتخاب طبیعی؛ نویسنده: چارلز داروین، مترجم: مرضیه خسروی؛ تهران، روزگار نو، 1394؛ در 77 ص، شابک: 9786007339534؛

    پیرامون آغاز گونه‌ها به وسیله ی انتخاب طبیعی، یا نگهداری نژادهای اصلح در تنازع بقا؛ مهم‌ترین اثر چارلز داروین، دانشمند و زیست‌ شناس اهل بریتانیا ست که در سال 1859 چاپ شد. داروین در این کتاب نظرات جدیدی درباره ی فرگشت، پیدایش حیات و انقراض انواع موجودات بیان کرد که در زمان خود جنجال‌های بسیاری را به وجود آورد. کتاب در دوازده فصل گردآوری شده‌ است. چهار فصل نخستین درباره ی اساس نظریه داروین است. چهار فصل بعدی به بررسی انتقاداتی می‌پردازد که داروین پیش‌ بینی کرده ممکن است به نظریه ی او وارد شود. سه فصل بعدی مربوط به شواهد زمین‌شناسی و پراکندگی گیاهان و جانوران و رده‌ بندی و ریخت‌ شناسی آن‌هاست. در فصل آخر تمام آنچه در کتاب آمده به صورت خلاصه بازگو شده‌ است. ا. شربیانی

  • Bookdragon Sean

    I mean if you think about it logically, no other book has had such a powerful impact on the way humanity views the earth; yes, we have countless religious doctrine, but never before had there been a book that so drastically alternated our perceptions of the mechanisms that are behind our existence. I’m not talking about on a spiritual level, a level of ideas that cannot be scientifically proven or unproven, but on an actual physical level.

    I mean if you think about it logically, no other book has had such a powerful impact on the way humanity views the earth; yes, we have countless religious doctrine, but never before had there been a book that so drastically alternated our perceptions of the mechanisms that are behind our existence. I’m not talking about on a spiritual level, a level of ideas that cannot be scientifically proven or unproven, but on an actual physical level.

    These ideas weren’t accepted overnight, few things are, but over time they began to be more and more accepted. Even today we still refer to Darwin’s ideas as “the theory of Evolution” despite the fact that it is now empirically proven as to how we got where we are. It is, generally speaking, a culturally accepted idea. The fact that we still refer to something most accept to be fact as a theory is a phenomenon. It’s unusual.

    Contrary to popular belief, Darwin did not seek to debunk any religious beliefs. In fact, the research he carried out put him in constant confusion about his own Christianity. For a time he believed religion and science could work together; he believed that science helped to explain some of the ideas in creation stories, but eventually he stopped believing. He lost his faith and embraced the logical mind of the scientist; again, he didn’t seek to counter religion. It was just a simple case that over time he could no longer personally and logically believe in it: it could not be proved rationally. As a student of literature, as a lover of stories, history, nature and narrative, I find myself drawn to ideas of religion and science. For anybody to call religion groundless (I say this from my own agnostically driven perspective) is to divulge a massive lack of judgment. Without wanting to offend any atheists, or anybody of faith, we will never know either way which is ultimately right. But, I do most ardently think that we can only begin to understand what it is to be human by reading and exploring the ideas of both religion and science. They have both been perpetuated by man, so I think we owe it to ourselves to try and understand why.

    Some of you may have noticed how eclectic my reading tastes have become. I pretty much read anything. I have many reading lists-both shortlists and longlists- but four works I simply

    to read in my lifetime are The Qur'an (I have a beautiful edition I picked up from a used book store- a late 19th Century edition), The King James Bible (I’ve recently finished genesis), Relativity: The Special and the General Theory by Einstein and A Brief History of Time by Hawkins. The point is, I think in today’s world we need to understand both religion and science. Both parts form a larger part of our society.

    Well, anyway, that was a rather large digression. I read the origin of species back in 2013 for the first time. My second reading was more of a gloss over of certain key ideas, and a revisit of passages that I flagged down before. The ideas in the book are obviously ground-breaking, though not the first historical example of them. But, for me, this book is more of a slog than leisure driven reading. The writing isn’t great and it is terribly repetitive at times, but I suppose that’s what comes with observing the natural world in such scientific detail. From the findings here Darwin would eventually go on to lay down his full arguments in

    a read that sounds more compelling and all encompassing. So it’s another one to add to my list!


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